1. Continental crust is typically much older than oceanic crust. This is because continental crust is ________________ than oceanic crust and therefore it is harder to ________________.

a) less dense .... subduct b) more dense .... fault c) more rigid .... fold d) more viscous .... bend

2. When the earth first formed many millions of years ago, there were probably no continents, only oceanic crust. So, you have to wonder.... how were the continents formed in the first place? The clue lies in places that exist today where you can find silica-rich (continental-like) rocks being created where two oceanic plates converge. This setting is called a (an) ______________ a) hot spot b) island arc c) suture


Questions 3-8 pertain to this diagram showing two lithospheric plates colliding.

3. Plate 1 would likely have the composition of a a) granite b) shale c) sandstone d) basalt

4. Do you care to comment on the scale I have drawn on the left? From my drawing it looks like the oceanic crust is ~ 100 km thick. Is this a realistic thickness for oceanic crust? a) yes b) no

5. Below about 700 km depth, how would plate 1 behave? a) elastically b) plastically c) like a large catfish d) it's misbehaved and should be spanked

6. A magma erupting at "d" would be rich in a) fossils b) iron c) magnesium d) silica

7. Where would you find this type of plate tectonic setting? a) west coast of Japan b) between India and Asia c) west coast of South America d) off the tip of South Africa

8. Volcanoes formed in this setting tend to be steeper than volcanoes formed at hot spots because a) they are built by very viscous lavas b) they are composed of ash c) they are mostly in the northern hemisphere d) they are produced by exfoliation


9. Earthquakes are often associated with volcanic activity. Most of these earthquakes are caused by a) landslides b) thrust faults c) pyroclastic flows d) movement of magma

10. Which of the following methods are used by geologists to evaluate the risks of a volcanic eruption? a) sulphur dioxide emissions b) studying earthquake patterns c) dating & mapping of older deposits d) all of the above e) none of the above


1. Earlier in this course we made a distinction between Silica-rich and Fe-Mg-rich igneous rocks, and the conditions under which they form. In general, igneous rocks rich in Fe and Mg a) form at low temperatures c) contain more impurities b) are rich in silica d) form at very high temperatures

2. If we ground up an igneous rock rich in Fe and Mg, and measured its pH, we would find that a) it has a high pH c) it is slightly acidic b) it has a low pH d) it doesn't have a pH

3. Pure rainwater a) has a pH of slightly less than 6 c) has a pH of 0.0 b) has a pH of 7 d) has a pH of about 7.5

4. Igneous rocks rich in Fe and Mg weather _____________________ rocks rich in silica ...... a) at about the same rate as b) more rapidly than c) more slowly than

5. ...... because a) they have coarse textures b) they contain minerals with high pH which react easily with near-surface waters c) they were formed at high temperatures, very different from the Earth's surface d) all of the above e) b & c only

6. Intrusive igneous rocks are distinguished from extrusive igneous rocks by their coarser texture. Assuming two rocks had the same mineralogy, which would weather the easiest? a) the intrusive rock b) the extrusive rock c) they'd weather at the same rate


This diagram shows 3 different soil profiles. The shaded pattern is the B horizon.

7. Where in these profiles is illuviation occurring? a) at the ground surface c) in the B horizon b) above the B horizon d) below the B horizon

8. Compared to the other soils, Soil C might be found a) in an arid environment d) all of the above b) in an area undergoing rapid surface erosion e) none of the above c) in an area underlain by fine-grained parent material

9. Suppose the area around Soil A was cleared of vegetation, and the ground surface was eroded (stripped) to the top of the B horizon. This would < a) reduce the infiltration capacity, increasing runoff c) cause Nitrogen fixation b) increase the permeability, reducing runoff d) increase the pH of the soil

10. Suppose we traveled in a time machine 10,000 years into the future and found all of these soils were buried under 0.5m of wind-blown silt. Where would you expect to find illuviation then? a) at the ground surface c) at the present level of the B horizon b) above the present level of the B horizon d) below the present level of the B horizon

11. If climate in the region of soil A became hotter and dryer, illuviation would occur _____ in the profile? a) lower b) higher c) at about the same place d) illuviation would cease

12. Red colors in soils are usually an indication of a) the presence of clay b) iron oxides c) organic matter d) reducing conditions


The following diagrams show water budgets for Topeka, Kansas and Albany, New York.

13. From June through October, PET > AET at Topeka, KS. This means that a) plants are transpiring water at the maximum rate c) there is a significant soil moisture deficit b) there is an overabundance of PRECIP d) there is an excess of soil moisture

14. A soil formed near Topeka, KS would a) be highly leached c) retain bases and nutrients b) have a low pH d) be saturated much of the time

15. The soil moisture budget at Albany, NY is characterized by a) a surplus for most of the year c) uneven precipitation from month to month b) a deficit during the winter d) low rates of leaching during the winter


1. In Colorado, most of the runoff (annual volume of streamflow) is produced by a) snowmelt c) rainfall from thunderstorms b) rainfall from "upslope" storms d) groundwater flow

2. In Colorado, the largest floods (for a given drainage area) are produced by a) snowmelt c) rainfall from thunderstorms b) rainfall from "upslope" storms d) ice jams on rivers

3. The 1993 Mississippi River floods were caused primarily by a) levee failures c) rain falling on frozen soils b) excessive rainfall d) ice jams

4. There are over 75,000 dams in the US. When did the real boom in dam building occur? a) early part of this century c) soon after World War II b) during the Great Depression d) during the Kennedy/Johnson Administrations

5. What is the purpose of the Colorado River Compact? a) it apportions the annual flow in the Colorado River between upper- and lower-basin states b) it gives states in the lower Colorado River basin incentives (tax breaks) for conserving water c) it sets water quality standards for flows through the Grand Canyon d) it prevents cities such as Denver from diverting water from the Colorado River basin

6. What is the "problem" with the Colorado River Compact? a) it expires in the year 2000, and there is no clear idea as to how this will affect the economy b) it unfairly penalizes lower basin states for conserving water c) it sets lower water quality standards for the upper basin states than the lower basin states d) it is based on hydrologic data obtained during a period of anomalously high runoff


This drawing shows two water wells penetrating two deposits. Don't assume anything about the permeability of the deposits based on the shading pattern or how the water table is shown.

19. Darcy's law expresses the rate of water flow as a function of a) hydraulic gradient, ęH/ęx b) permeability, K c) precipitation intensity, P d) a & b e) a, b, & c

20. If the two deposits had the same permeability, you would have to say that well # 1 is pumping at a lower rate than well #2 (T/F)

21. If the two wells were pumping at the same rate, you would have to say that deposit 1 is less permeable than deposit 2 (T/F)

22. The permeability of a sedimentary deposit usually increases as the a) size of the pores decreases b) size of the sediment increases c) slope of the ground increases d) atmospheric pressure increases

23. Groundwater withdrawal has caused up to 25 ft of subsidence in a) central California b) central Oregon c) eastern Colorado d) Iowa

24. (T/F) Groundwater is being pumped from certain parts of the High Plains aquifer at rates that are as much as 100 times higher than the recharge rate.



GEOG 1011 -- LANDSCAPES and WATER -- REVIEW OUTLINE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The final exam will consist of 80 multiple choice questions, followed by some fill-in-the-blank questions, some questions related to a map of the US, and 10 questions on slides. You will see some questions that you have seen before, perhaps worded a little differently. Most of the information will come out of lecture notes; use the book as a backup. You need to know some terms (see below) but not as many as are given in the book. I will post copies of the previous exams on a glass-encased bulletin board on the first floor of Guggenheim (first floor, down the hallway, east of the main office). The following summarizes the main topics covered in this course:

I. Basic Geology (lecture notes from Aug. 28 - Sept. 27; book chapts. 11 & 12)

Review large-scale geologic processes that create major topographic features on the earth's surface: - basic earth structure (differences in layers; density and composition of crust and mantle) - rock types, including table 11-2 showing classification of igneous rocks - plate tectonics: evidence used in developing the theory; 3 types of plate boundaries (p. 329) - importance of convergent zones (p. 350-351) - earthquakes: review class notes, including points about New Madrid Seismic zone - volcanism: review class notes, see pp. 362-370

key words: lithosphere, asthenosphere, mantle, crust, isostasy, magnetic reversal, elastic rebound, lahar, pyroclastic flow, composite volcano, shield volcano, caldera

II. Weathering, MassWasting and Soils (lecture notes from Oct. 2 - Oct. 25; Chapts. 13 & 18)

A. Weathering: Remember that rocks form at high temperature and high pressure so they are out of equilibrium with the earth's surface environment; mineralogy and texture determine resistance to physical and chemical weathering. Review processes involved in - mechanical weathering (small pieces -> big pieces; temp. & pressure effects) - chemical weathering: review relation to igneous rock types (texture and mineralogy)

key words: hydrolysis, oxidation, carbonation

B. Soils (= products of weathering; Chapt. 18) - soil properties (review material on pp. 530-532) - importance of climate, soil water and soil chemistry (especially pH) - soil forming factors (Cl.O.R.P.T.) - know basic characteristics of 4 soil orders: spodosols, oxisols, mollisols, aridisols (for example, you should be able to complete a table with blanks for various soil properties)

key words: eluviation, illuviation, pH, cation exchange, podzolization, calcification, salinization, diagnostic horizon

C. Mass Wasting (lecture notes on landslides, debris flows; Chapt. 13)

III. Hydrology and Rivers (lecture notes from Oct. 27 - Nov. ??; Chapt. 9 & 14)

A. Hydrology - hydrologic cycle: review water balance eqn., and the meaning of different terms (see below); review soil moisture states, and processes of infiltration and runoff. - groundwater (hydraulic gradient, permeability) - surface water and floods

key words: water balance, actual evaporation, potential evaporation, soil moisture deficit, surplus, overland flow, field capacity, capillary water, hygroscopic water, wilting point, confined aquifer, unconfined aquifer, permeability, porosity, hydraulic gradient, drawdown, recharge, overdraft

B. Fluvial Processes - flow in channels (velocity, slope, depth) - sediment erosion, transport, and deposition (sediment load & channel pattern) - equilibrium and disequilibrium (changes in sediment load & size, channel slope & shape)

key words: grain size, drag and lift forces, bed load, suspended load, alluvium, meandering rivers, braided rivers, exotic river, longitudinal profile

IV. Eolian Processes and Arid Lands (lecture notes from Nov. 20 - 29; Chapt. 15) - eolian sediment transport; make sure you understand differences between water and air; - read section discussing major dune types- barchan, transverse, longitudinal (seif) - review lecture notes discussing dune fields in Colorado and Nebraska - read the section of loess, pp. 441-445

key words: saltation, deflation, abrasion, ventifacts, dune fields, loess

V. Glaciation and Climate Change (lecture notes from Dec. 1- 11; Chapt. 17) - formation and movement of glacial ice; differences between temperate and polar glaciers; accumulation vs. ablation; erosion & deposition by glaciers - erosional & depositional landforms: U-shaped valleys, moraines, drumlins - review lecture notes on outburst floods in eastern Washington. - causes and consequences of climate change over recent (last 2 MY) time scales

key words: firn, cold-based and warm based glaciers, accumulation, ablation, equilibrium line altitude (ELA), regelation, crevasse, surge, abrasion, plucking, cirque, hanging valley, U-shaped valley, roche moutonnČe, moraine, esker, drumlin, coulee

Don't forget to read the 3rd paper that I put on reserve. I will not ask questions about the other papers that you read earlier in the semester.